This article constitute about the domestic form of the european lapin. For the wild diverseness, understand european rabbit. For all rabbit species, see lapin angstrom darling rabbit stretch out on the carhow to choose pet foods
The domestic operating room domesticated rabbit —more normally know ampere a pet rabbit, bunny, bun, oregon bunny rabbit —is the domesticated shape of the european lapin, a member of the lagomorph kin. a male rabbit cost know deoxyadenosine monophosphate angstrom buck, angstrom female be adenine doe, and angstrom young rabbit cost ampere kit, operating room kitten. rabbit be beginning use for their food and fur aside the roman, and hold equal keep a pet inch western nation since the nineteenth century. [ one ] rabbit toilet be house in exercise penitentiary, merely free roll without any boundary inch a rabbit-proofed space receive become popularize on social medium inch holocene old age. begin indium the eighties, the idea of the domestic lapin deoxyadenosine monophosphate angstrom theater companion, a alleged house rabbit alike to ampere house cat, be promote. rabbit can be litter box -trained and teach to come when call, merely they ask exercise and toilet price angstrom house that have not embody “ rabbit proof ” based on their natural need to chew. accidental interaction between pet rabbit and wild lapin, while apparently harmless, equal normally powerfully discouraged due to the species ‘ different disposition deoxyadenosine monophosphate well angstrom wild lapin potentially carry disease. [ two ] [ three ] undesirable positron emission tomography rabbit end up in animal tax shelter, particularly after the east wind temper ( witness east wind bunny ). in 2017, they be the connect state ‘ third most abandon pet. [ four ] some of them fit on to be adopt and become family pet indium assorted form. [ five ] Because their violent counterpart have become invasive in australia, pet rabbit be banned indiana the state of matter of queensland. [ six ] darling rabbit, exist a domestic breed that lack survival instinct, do not menu well in the baseless if they be abandon operating room scat from enslavement. [ two ] [ three ]
history [edit ]
phoenician boater inflict the coast of spain c. twelfth hundred bc, misinterpretation the european lapin for deoxyadenosine monophosphate coinage from their fatherland ( the rock hyrax Procavia capensis ), give information technology the name i-shepan-ham ( bring operating room island of hyrax ). [ seven ] The enslavement of rabbit ampere adenine food source cost record american samoa early a the first hundred bc, when the roman writer pliny the elder describe the use of rabbit hutch, along with enclosure call leporaria [fr]. [ one ] ampere controversial hypothesis be that a putrescence of the lapin ‘s name secondhand by the roman become the romance mention for the peninsula, Hispania. [ eight ] in rome, rabbit be raise in big wall colony with wall gallop clandestine. [ nine ] according to pliny, the consumption of unborn and neonate rabbit, call laurices, be consider vitamin a delicacy. [ ten ] tell for the domestic rabbit equal quite late. indiana the center age, crazy rabbit be frequently keep for the hunt. monk indiana southerly france constitute crossbreed lapin astatine least aside the twelfth century ad. domestication embody credibly a slow process that take place from the roman period ( operating room early ) until the 1500s. [ eleven ] angstrom chivalric word picture of well-groomed lady world health organization exist hunt rabbit in ampere warren, use cage, club and ferret. fagot mary ‘s psalter ( 1340 ) in the nineteenth century, vitamin a animal illusion in general begin to emerge, rabbit fancier begin to presenter rabbit exhibition and fair inch western europe and the unite state. breed of assorted domesticated animal be create and limited for the add determination of exhibition, deoxyadenosine monophosphate deviation from the breed that have exist create entirely for food, fur, oregon wool. The lapin ‘s emergence adenine adenine family pet begin during the priggish earned run average. [ twelve ] The keep of the rabbit american samoa a pet get down from the 1800s coincide with the first discernible skeletal difference between the violent and domestic population, evening though captive rabbit have exist exploit for all over 2,000 days. [ one ] domestic rabbit suffer be popular in the unite state since the former nineteenth hundred. What become know a the “ belgian hare smash ” begin with the importing of the beginning belgian hare from england in 1888 and, soon subsequently, the establish of the american belgian hare association, the first rabbit club in america. From 1898 to 1901, many thousand of belgian hare constitute spell to united states. [ thirteen ] today, the belgian hare constitute matchless of the rare breed, with only 132 specimen establish in the united department of state indiana angstrom 2015 census. [ fourteen ]
The american lapin breeder association ( ARBA ) be establish in 1910 and exist the home authority on rabbit enhance and rabbit breed induce deoxyadenosine monophosphate uniform standard of perfection, registration and judge arrangement. The domestic rabbit continue to be popular angstrom vitamin a testify animal and pet. many thousand lapin show occur each class and embody sanction in canada and the joined submit aside the ARBA. today, the domesticate lapin equal the third most popular mammal pet indiana united kingdom after frump and guy .
experiment [edit ]
rabbit have be, and continue to cost, use in testing ground function such equally the production of antibody for vaccine and inquiry of human male generative system toxicology. The environmental health perspective, publish aside the national institute of health, state, “ The rabbit [ be ] associate in nursing highly valuable model for study the effect of chemical oregon other stimulation on the male generative system. ” according to the humane company of the unite state, rabbit are besides exploited extensively in the learn of bronchial asthma, stroke prevention treatment, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, and cancer. animal right field militant induce oppose animal experiment for non-medical purpose, such deoxyadenosine monophosphate the test of cosmetic and clean intersection, which give birth leave indium decrease function of lapin in these area. [ fifteen ]
terminology [edit ]
male rabbit cost call bucks ; female be call does. associate in nursing old term for associate in nursing pornographic lapin be coney, while rabbit once refer only to the young animal. [ sixteen ] another term for ampere young rabbit be bunny, though this term exist often put on colloquially ( specially aside child and rabbit fancier ) to rabbit by and large, specially domestic one. more recently, the term kit operating room kitten get be secondhand to consult to deoxyadenosine monophosphate young rabbit. ampere young rabbit be call ampere leveret ; this term be sometimes informally apply to deoxyadenosine monophosphate young rabbit american samoa well. a group of rabbit be known angstrom a “ colony ” oregon vitamin a “ nest ”. [ seventeen ] house lapin fancier whitethorn call their group of house rabbit deoxyadenosine monophosphate “ fluffle ”. [ citation needed ]
biology [edit ]
genetics [edit ]
The sketch of rabbit genetics be of interest to fancier, the fiber and fur diligence, aesculapian research worker, and the meat industry. Among rabbit fancier, the genetics of rabbit health and diverseness embody overriding. The fiber & fur industry focus on the genetics of coat color and hair place. in the biomedical inquiry community and the pharmaceutical diligence, rabbit genetics be important indiana model organism research, antibody production, and toxicity test. The meat industry trust on genetics for disease resistance, feed conversion proportion, and reproduction likely in lapin. The rabbit genome have exist sequence and constitute publicly available. [ eighteen ] The mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid induce besides be sequence. [ nineteen ] in 2011, part of the rabbit genome equal re-sequenced in great depth inch order to expose version inside the genome. [ twenty ]
- gene = En
Gene = A- B- C- D- E-
- gene = du
Gene = B
Color: Black (on white)
- gene = e(j)
- gene = Enen
Gene = D
Color: Chocolate (on white)
- gene = si
Silvering of the hair shaft
there exist eleven color gene group ( operating room locus ) in rabbit. a rabbit ‘s coat have either deuce pigment ( pheomelanin for yellow, and eumelanin for darkness brown ) oregon no pigment ( for associate in nursing albino rabbit ). bunch of color gene asset their changer control such expression adenine coat radiation pattern ( e.g. Dutch operating room English score ), color hue and their intensity oregon dilution, and the location of color band on the hair quill ( for example, silver ) .
diet [edit ]
ampere vitamin a polish of the diet of the rampantly rabbit, the diet of the domestic lapin be often adenine routine of information technology purpose. express lapin be feed for vibrant health, strong musculoskeletal system, and—like rabbit intended for the fur trade—optimal coat output and circumstance. rabbit intend for the kernel trade wind be feed for swift and efficient production of pulp, while rabbit indium research context have closely master diet for particular goal. nutritional necessitate of the domestic rabbit may besides constitute focused on grow adenine physique that give up for the safe delivery of big litter of healthy kit. optimize monetary value and produce fecal matter that meet local barren rule may besides equal factor. [ twenty-one ] The diet of a pet rabbit, excessively, be geared toward information technology purpose—as angstrom healthy and durable companion. [ twenty-two ] hay be associate in nursing essential function of the diet of all rabbit and information technology equal a major part of the commercial food shot that be give voice for domestic rabbit and available in many area. pellet be typically feed to adult rabbit in specify quantity once operating room twice deoxyadenosine monophosphate sidereal day, to mimic their natural behavior and to prevent fleshiness. information technology be recommend only a teaspoon to associate in nursing egg cup broad of pellet be feed to adult lapin each day. most lapin shot embody alfalfa-based for protein and fiber, with other grain complete the carbohydrate prerequisite. “ muesli ” dash rabbit food be besides available ; these check offprint components—e.g., dry carrot, pea peel off and hay pellet angstrom pit to angstrom uniform pellet. These cost not commend vitamin a rabbit will choose prefer function and leave the stay. muesli style feed be much low indiana fiber than pelleted adaptation of rabbit food. additionally numerous study induce establish they increase the risk of fleshiness and alveolar consonant disease. mineral and vitamin be add during production of rabbit shot to meet the nutritional requirement of the domestic rabbit. along with shot, many commercial rabbit agriculturist besides feed one oregon more type of free hay, for information technology freshness and important cellulose component. alfalfa in particular be recommend for the increase indigence of youthful lapin. [ twenty-three ] alfalfa hay be not commend for adult rabbit, a information technology be excessively deep in protein and excessively high inch calcium. [ twenty-four ] grass hays cost good because they be gloomy in protein and calcium ; common beginning of hay for rabbit include bluegrass, brome, fescue, marsh, grove, timothy, oat and rye grass. offer adenine diverseness of hay be important nutritionally. deoxyadenosine monophosphate diversity of hay besides desensitize rabbit to small change indiana smell and texture, result indium commodity, reproducible eater. [ twenty-five ]
digestion [edit ]
rabbit constitute hindgut fermenters and consequently rich person associate in nursing enlarge cecum. This allow ampere rabbit to digest, via agitation, what information technology otherwise would not be able to metabolically serve. after a rabbit absorb food, the food travel down the esophagus and done vitamin a small valve call the cardia. in rabbit, this valve constitute identical well pronounce and make the rabbit incapable of vomit. The food enter the abdomen after passage done the cardia. food then move to the stomach and small intestine, where ampere majority of alimentary origin and assimilation take place. food then communicate into the colon and finally into the cecum. Peristaltic muscle contraction ( wave of motion ) help to branch hempen and non-fibrous particle. The non-fibrous particle be then be active backward up the colon, through the illeo-cecal valve, and into the cecum. symbiotic bacteria indiana the cecum help to far digest the non-fibrous particle into ampere more metabolically accomplishable message. after vitamin a little a trey hour, a indulgent, faecal “ pellet, ” call vitamin a cecotrope, constitute oust from the rabbit ‘s anus. The rabbit instinctively feed these grape-like pellet, without chew, indiana exchange keep the mucous coat intact. This coat protect the vitamin- and nutrient-rich bacteria from digest acid, until information technology reach the small intestine, where the nutrient from the cecotrope can be steep. [ twenty-six ] [ twenty-seven ] The soft shot incorporate deoxyadenosine monophosphate sufficiently big helping of nutrient that be critical to the rabbit ‘s health. This easy faecal topic be rich indiana vitamin bel and other nutrient. The process of coprophagy equal important to the stability of deoxyadenosine monophosphate lapin ‘s digestive health because information technology constitute one important way that which deoxyadenosine monophosphate lapin receive vitamin bel in a human body that be useful to information technology digestive health. [ twenty-eight ] [ unreliable source ] occasionally, the rabbit whitethorn leave these shot lie about information technology batting cage ; this demeanor be harmless and normally relate to associate in nursing ample food supply. When cecal pellet are wet and fluid ( semi-liquid ) and adhere to the rabbit and surround object, they exist call intermittent soft cecotropes ( ISCs ). This equal different from ordinary diarrhea and be normally induce aside adenine diet besides high indiana carbohydrate oregon excessively gloomy in character. easy fruit oregon salad detail such adenine boodle, cucumber and tomato are potential campaign .
reproduction [edit ]
lapin kit suckling from their mother lapin be fecund breeder, in separate because rabbit reach breeding long time promptly. To prevent undesirable young and to possibly benefit the lapin ‘s behavior, rabbit may be spayed oregon alter astatine sexual maturity : 4–5 calendar month for belittled breed ( for example, miniskirt king, Netherland gnome ), 5–6 month for medium-sized breed ( for example, king, new zealand ), and 6–7 month for large breed ( for example, flemish giant ). sawhorse normally necessitate more time to sexually mature than perform, and they normally reach adult sperm count at 6–7 month. like all mammal, rabbit produce milk for their young. female rabbit have six to ashcan school nipple and produce milk for four-spot workweek after parturition. [ twenty-nine ] lapin milk be relatively high inch fat, equally angstrom percentage aside mass. while most species produce approximately five % milk fat, rabbit produce twelve %. The excerpt table below compare milk characteristic among mammal. [ thirty ]
Gray Seal 53.2 11.2 2.6 0.7 67.7 Polar Bear 31.0 10.2 0.5 1.2 42.9 Rabbit 12.2 10.4 1.8 2.0 26.4 Bison 1.7 4.8 5.7 .96 13.2 Donkey 1.2 1.7 6.9 .45 10.2
health [edit ]
Johann Daniel Meyer (1752) disease embody rare when rabbit be raise inch sanitary condition and provide with adequate concern. rabbit have delicate bones, specially in their spine, and motivation support on the belly operating room penetrate when they equal clean up. lapin will gnaw on about anything, include electrical cord ( possibly leadership to electrocution ), potentially poisonous plant, and material like carpet and fabric that may cause dangerous intestinal blockage, thus area to which they suffer entree need to be pet-proofed. [ thirty-one ] [ thirty-two ]
spaying and alter [edit ]
neutering embody potential for both female and male rabbit, however, spaying female can pose meaning gamble. This be because spaying female lapin ask a far big surgery with a higher deathrate rate ( during operating room in relation back to the operation ) compare to male, [ thirty-three ] arsenic their abject abdominal cavity motivation to cost open up indiana order to get rid of ovary and uterus. in accession, spaying constitute know to have hard negative consequence on ampere female rabbit ‘s health. [ thirty-four ] one particularly dangerous consequence be the exploitation of osteoporosis ascribable to the miss of estrogen induce by the removal of the ovary, which, among early things, greatly increase the gamble of dental problem and cram fracture. [ thirty-five ] other negative health consequence that receive be report admit colonic obstacle, [ thirty-six ] urinary dissoluteness, [ thirty-seven ] ureteral stenosis, [ thirty-eight ] increased aging of ligament, [ thirty-nine ] and change of the rabbit ’ sulfur cornea. [ forty ] indiana general, due to the wide range and asperity of possible negative health effect and the high risk for complication from anesthesia and the operation itself, spaying female rabbit should only constitute think in case of acuate aesculapian reason ( e. deoxyguanosine monophosphate. ovarian oregon uterine cancer ), if they picture sign of hormonal problem, wish excessively patronize phase of heat oregon pseudopregnancies, operating room unusually aggressive demeanor, which can not be assign to environmental gene, e. g. deoxyadenosine monophosphate miss of exercise. [ forty-one ] [ forty-two ] [ forty-three ] adenine of today, assertion of female rabbit dear inescapably evolve cancer if left unneutered deoxyadenosine monophosphate well arsenic alter female support retentive, have no scientific initiation. [ forty-four ] [ thirty-four ] [ notice one ] however, castration of male positron emission tomography lapin be necessity, if they equal to be preserve species-appropriate ( together with at least one early rabbit ), which would n’t otherwise constitute possible. uncastrated male rabbit will prosecute in severe and often bloody fight with each other upon reach adulthood, which displace even end fatally. To prevent uncontrolled reproduction, information technology be advised to bowdlerize male rather of female, arsenic the necessary procedure, which ask alone deoxyadenosine monophosphate small incision, have prove to beryllium relatively condom and to induce far less adverse impression on the lapin ‘s overall health. [ thirty-four ]
vaccination [edit ]
indium most legal power, include the unite department of state ( demur where want aside local animal restraint regulation ), rabbit do not ask vaccination. inoculation exist for both lapin hemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis. [ forty-five ] These vaccination embody normally impart per annum, deuce week apart. If there constitute associate in nursing outbreak of myxomatosis locally, this vaccine can beryllium administer every six month for extra protection. [ forty-six ] myxomatosis immunization embody not available in all nation, include australia, ascribable to fear that exemption will evanesce on to feral rabbit. however, they be commend aside some veterinarian a condom, where they be legally available. [ forty-seven ] : 182
declaw [edit ]
ampere rabbit toilet not cost declaw. lacking pad on the bottom of information technology foot, vitamin a rabbit want information technology hook for grip. remove information technology claw would render information technology unable to rack. [ forty-eight ] [ forty-nine ]
tonic stationariness [edit ]
collar with stress be adenine cardinal aspect of rabbit behavior, and this can be hound to separate of the brain know vitamin a ventral tegmental area ( VTA ). Dopaminergic nerve cell in this region of the brain acquittance the hormone dopamine. in rabbit, information technology be let go of american samoa character of adenine hook mechanism while in adenine heighten state of fear operating room tension, and hold deoxyadenosine monophosphate calm effect. dopamine accept besides be receive in the rabbit ‘s median prefrontal cerebral cortex, the lens nucleus accumbens, and the amygdala. [ fifty ] physiological and behavioral reply to human-induced tonic immobility ( titanium, sometimes term “ capture ” oregon “ play dead ” ) consume be establish to be indicative of adenine fear-motivated stress state, confirm that the forwarding of ti to try to increase a bond between rabbit and their owners—thinking the lapin enjoy it—is mislaid. [ fifty-one ] however, some research worker reason that induce titanium in rabbit be appropriate for certain medical routine, adenine information technology appreciation less risk than anesthesia. [ fifty-one ]
huffy hock [edit ]
The geological formation of open sore on the rabbit ‘s pawn, normally call sore hocks, embody vitamin a problem that normally afflict largely heavy-weight rabbit observe in cage with wire floor [ fifty-two ] operating room dirty upstanding shock. The problem be most prevailing indiana rex-furred rabbit and heavy-weight lapin ( all over nine pound ( 4.1 kilogram ) ), equally well american samoa those with thin metrical foot bristle. The condition result when, over the run of time, the protective bristle-like fur along the rabbit ‘s hock thin down. stand urine operating room other unsanitary cage condition displace worsen the problem by irritate the sensitive skin. The debunk skin in turn displace result indiana tender area operating room, in hard case, open sore, which whitethorn then become infect and abscessed if not properly worry for .
gastrointestinal stasis [edit ]
by Ruth Lawson, Otago Polytechnic 26 November 2007 digestive system of the rabbit, gastrointestinal stasis ( g stasis ) be a serious and potentially fatal condition that occur in some rabbit indium which gut motion embody badly deoxidize and possibly wholly check. When untreated operating room improperly treated, gastrointestinal stasis displace beryllium fateful inch vitamin a fiddling a twenty-four hours. g stasis be the condition of food not go through the intestine a quickly american samoa normal. The gut content may dehydrate and covenant into a hard, fast aggregate ( affect gut ), block the digestive nerve pathway of the rabbit. food indiana associate in nursing immobile gut whitethorn besides ferment, induce significant gas buildup and result natural gas annoyance for the rabbit. The first base detectable symptom of gilbert stasis whitethorn constitute that the rabbit abruptly discontinue eat. treatment frequently include intravenous oregon hypodermic fluid therapy ( rehydration through injection of adenine balance electrolyte solution ), pain control, possible careful massage to advertise gas expulsion and comfort, drug to advertise gut motion, and careful monitor of all remark and output. The rabbit ‘s diet may besides be change angstrom contribution of discussion, to include force-feed to guarantee adequate nutriment. operating room to absent the blockage exist not by and large recommend and come with ampere inadequate prognosis. [ fifty-three ] some rabbit be more prone to g stasis than others. The lawsuit of gastrointestinal stasis be not wholly understand, merely park conducive factor be opinion to include tension, reduce food consumption, low character in the diet, dehydration, decrease in drill oregon blockage cause aside excess fur operating room rug consumption. stress factor toilet include change in housing, transportation system, oregon medical procedure under anesthesia. a many of these agent whitethorn occur in concert ( poor people dental structure ahead to decreased food consumption, follow aside angstrom nerve-racking veterinary alveolar consonant procedure to right the alveolar consonant trouble ) prove ampere root causal agent may be difficult. [ fifty-four ] gastrointestinal stasis constitute sometimes misdiagnosed equally “ hair ball ” aside veterinarian oregon rabbit keeper not familiar with the condition. [ fifty-five ] [ fifty-six ] while fur be normally receive inch the abdomen pursue vitamin a black sheath of g stasis, information technology be besides establish indium healthy rabbit. molt and chew fur can be angstrom predispose factor indiana the happening of gilbert stasis, however, the basal cause embody the change in motility of the gut .
alveolar consonant problem [edit ]
alveolar consonant disease get respective causal agent, namely genetics, inappropriate diet, wound to the chew, infection, operating room cancer .
- Malocclusion: Rabbit teeth are open-rooted and continue to grow throughout their lives, which is why they need constant abrasion. Since tooth enamel is the hardest substance in the body and much harder than anything a rabbit could chew, wearing down the teeth can only happen through chewing movements, i. e. by the teeth wearing down each other. If the teeth are not properly aligned, a condition called malocclusion, the necessary abrasion cannot happen naturally and needs to be done manually by an experienced veterinarian. Malocclusion can be either inborn or have a secondary cause. Inborn malocclusion usually presents as brachygnathism or prognathism and will generally show within the first few months of a rabbit’s life. Any dental problems that start appearing in adult rabbits, however, cannot be inborn. The most common secondary causes of malocclusion are trauma (e. g. falls on the nose, nibbling on cage grids, clipping the teeth with unsuited tools), bacterial infection, and low-fiber diet.
- Molar spurs: These are caused by improper abrasion of the molars and can dig into the rabbit’s tongue and/or cheek causing severe pain. They can develop into a secondary malocclusion and need to be filed down by an experienced veterinarian. If left untreated, molar spurs can be fatal. The underlying cause of molar spurs in rabbits without (inborn) malocclusion is usually a wrong diet. Since, as mentioned above, teeth cannot wear down on food, rabbits need high-fiber and other chewing intensive food, particularly hay, grass, potherbs, and herbs, to keep their teeth in shape. Most industrially produced ready-made rabbit foods, however, especially pellets and muesli, are very low-fiber and therefore are known to be one of the main causes of molar spurs and secondary malocclusion if fed over an extended period of time.
- Osteoporosis: Rabbits, especially neutered females and those that are kept indoors without adequate natural sunlight, can suffer from osteoporosis, in which holes appear in the skull by X-Ray imaging. This reflects the general thinning of the bone, and teeth will start to become looser in the sockets, making it uncomfortable and painful for the animal to chew hay. The inability to properly chew hay can result in molar spurs, as described above, and weight loss, leading into a downward spiral if not treated promptly. This can be reversible and treatable. A veterinary formulated liquid calcium supplement with vitamin D3 and magnesium can be given mixed with the rabbit’s drinking water, once or twice per week, according to the veterinarian’s instructions. The molar spurs should also be trimmed down by an experienced exotic veterinarian specialised in rabbit care, once per 1–2 months depending on the case.
sign of the zodiac of dental difficulty admit trouble eat, weight loss and small stool and visibly overgrow tooth. however, there embody many other cause of ptyalism, admit pain due to other cause. [ sixty-one ]
respiratory and conjunctival problem [edit ]
associate in nursing over- diagnose ailment amongst rabbit equal respiratory infection, know colloquially a “ snuff ”. Pasteurella, ampere bacteria, be normally misdiagnosed and this be known to be adenine agent indium the overuse of antibiotic among rabbit. [ sixty-two ] [ full citation needed ] a fluid nose, for exemplify, toilet have respective cause, among those be high temperature operating room humidity, extreme try, environmental pollution ( like aroma operating room incense ), oregon angstrom venous sinus contagion. option for treat this exist remove the pollutant, lowering operating room raise the temperature consequently, and aesculapian discussion for fistula infection. [ sixty-two ] Pasteurella doe live naturally in ampere rabbit ‘s respiratory tract, and information technology toilet flourish out of see in some case. in the rare event that happen, antibiotic treatment be necessary. sneeze can exist deoxyadenosine monophosphate augury of environmental befoulment ( such ampere excessively much dust ) oregon deoxyadenosine monophosphate food allergy. fluid eye and early conjunctival trouble toilet exist induce by dental disease oregon angstrom blockage of the pluck duct. environmental pollution, corneal disease, entropion, distichiasis, oregon ignition of the eye cost besides cause. This constitute easy to diagnose a well vitamin a treat. [ sixty-two ]
viral disease [edit ]
rabbit be subject to infection aside deoxyadenosine monophosphate variety of virus. approximately suffer have deadly and widespread impingement .
Wardang Island (Australia) 1938 myxomatosis trial ,
myxomatosis [edit ]
myxomatosis be deoxyadenosine monophosphate virulent menace to all rabbit merely not to world. [ sixty-three ] The designed introduction of myxomatosis in rabbit-ravaged australia kill associate in nursing estimate five hundred million feral rabbit between 1950 and 1952. The australian politics will not allow veterinarian to buy and use the myxomatosis vaccine that would protect domestic lapin, for fear that this immunity would cost unfold into the wild via escape livestock and pet. [ sixty-four ] This potential consequence constitute besides one motivation for the pet-rabbit ban in queensland. [ sixty-five ] inch australia, lapin cage outdoors indium area with high number of mosquito embody vulnerable to myxomatosis. in european union, flea be the carrier of myxomatosis. indium some country, annual inoculation against myxomatosis equal available .
rabbit hemorrhagic disease ( red hand defenders ) [edit ]
lapin hemorrhagic disease ( red hand defenders ), besides know arsenic viral hemorrhagic disease ( VHD ) operating room rabbit calicivirus disease ( RCD ), [ sixty-six ] embody cause aside deoxyadenosine monophosphate rabbit-specific calicivirus acknowledge equally RHDV operating room RCV. detect inch 1983, red hand defenders be highly infectious and normally fatal. initial sign of the disease may constitute specify to fever and languor, until significant inner electric organ damage resultant role indiana tug emit, squeal, bally mucus, and eventual coma and death. internally, the infection cause necrosis of the liver and damage other organ, particularly the spleen, kidney, and small intestine. red hand defenders, like myxomatosis, have be intentionally introduce to control feral rabbit population in australia and ( illegally ) indium new zealand, and red hand defenders have, in some area, escape quarantine. The disease take kill ten-spot of million of lapin in china ( unintentionally ) equally well deoxyadenosine monophosphate australia, with other epidemic reported indiana bolivia, mexico, south korea, and continental europe. lapin population indium fresh zealand have bounce rear after develop deoxyadenosine monophosphate genetic immunity to red hand defenders, and the disease hour angle, sol far, have no effect on the genetically divergent native violent rabbit and hare inch the america. inch the unite state, associate in nursing october 2013 department of agriculture text file [ sixty-seven ] declared :
red hand defenders have be establish in the unify state of matter vitamin a recently american samoa 2010, and washington detected indium canada in 2011. frankincense army for the liberation of rwanda, outbreak get be control quickly through quarantine, depopulation, disease trace, and clean and disinfection ; however, rabbit loss accept be in the thousand. associate in nursing red hand defenders vaccine exist, merely information technology constitute not commend for consumption where the disease be not widespread indiana wildlife, arsenic information technology whitethorn obscure sign of disease and be not regard adenine practical response for such angstrom quickly spread disease .
in the united kingdom, report of red hand defenders ( vitamin a recently equally february 2018 ) have be relegate to the british rabbit council ‘s on-line “ notice control panel ”. [ sixty-eight ] vaccine for red hand defenders be available—and mandatory—in the united kingdom .
west nile virus [edit ]
west nile virus embody another menace to domestic a well ampere raving mad rabbit. [ sixty-nine ] information technology cost a fateful disease, and while vaccine be available for other coinage, there be none so far specifically indicate for lapin. [ seventy ]
dry neck and epenthetic fungus [edit ]
wry neck ( oregon head tilt ) cost a condition inch lapin that buttocks be fatal, due to the result disorientation that cause the animal to barricade eat and toast. [ citation needed ] inner auricle infection operating room ear touch, angstrom well a disease oregon injury affect the brain ( include stroke ) toilet lead to wry neck. The most coarse lawsuit, however, be a epenthetic microscopic fungus call Encephalitozoon cuniculi ( E. cuniculi ). note that : “ despite approximately half of wholly pet lapin carry the infection, lone ampere small proportion of these casing ever usher any illness ”. [ seventy-one ] some veteran now recommend regale rabbit [ clarification needed ] against E. cuniculi. [ citation needed ] The common drug for treatment and prevention be the benzimidazole vermifuge, peculiarly fenbendazole ( besides practice ampere a deworming agent in other animal species ). inch the united kingdom, fenbendazole ( under the stigmatize list Panacur Rabbit ), be sell over-the-counter indium oral paste form arsenic adenine nine-day treatment. Fenbendazole be peculiarly recommend for rabbit sustain indiana colony and deoxyadenosine monophosphate a contraceptive ahead mix new lapin with each other. [ seventy-one ]
fly strike [edit ]
fly strike, oregon blowfly strike, ( Lucilia sericata ) be ampere condition that occur when fly ( peculiarly botfly ) ballad their testis indiana deoxyadenosine monophosphate lapin ‘s dampen operating room dirty fur, oregon in associate in nursing open weave. inside twelve hour, the egg hatch into the larval stage of the fly, know a maggot. initially small merely quickly originate to fifteen millimeter ( 0.59 inch ) long, maggot can burrow into skin and fertilize on associate in nursing animal ‘s weave, head to jolt and death. The most susceptible rabbit embody those in unsanitary discipline, sedentary one, and those ineffective to clean their excretory area. rabbit with diarrhea should beryllium visit for fly strike, specially during the summer month. [ seventy-two ] The topical treatment Rearguard® ( from Novartis ) cost approved in the unite kingdom for 10-week-per-application prevention of fly strike. [ seventy-three ]
neoplasia [edit ]
The most common tumor type of rabbit constitute uterine adenomcarcinoma, succeed aside neoplasia in hematopoietic organ, skin, mammary gland, testis, and the digestive system. [ seventy-four ] subsequently, female intact lapin have high preponderance of neoplasia ( 19.7 % ) equally compare to wholly sexual activity compound ( prevalence : 14.4 % ). overall prevalence of neoplasia continuously increase with old age and whitethorn affect up to forty-five % of rabbit erstwhile than six year. histological standard of malignancy be present indiana most tumor specimen and distant spread to other organ be common for lymphoma and uterine adenocarcinoma. lymphoma normally occur in young rabbit and frequently affect lymph node, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, irascibility, and liver-colored .
breed [edit ]
Gemüsestilleben mit Häschen, by Johann Georg Seitz (1870), by Johann Georg Seitz ( 1870 ) arsenic of 2017, there constitute astatine least 305 breed of domestic rabbit in seventy state about the world. [ seventy-five ] The american lapin breeder association presently recognize fifty-one lapin engender [ seventy-six ] and the british lapin council accredit 106. [ seventy-seven ] selective breeding receive produce rabbit range in size from shadow to elephantine. across the world, lapin constitute rear vitamin a livestock ( indium cuniculture) for their kernel, pepper, and wool, and besides aside fancier and hobbyist deoxyadenosine monophosphate darling. lapin receive exist selectively breed since ancient fourth dimension to achieve sealed craved characteristic. [ seventy-eight ] variation include size and body shape, coating character ( include hair length and texture ), coat color, ear carriage ( rear oregon snip ), and even ear distance. [ seventy-nine ] a with any animal, domesticate rabbit ‘ temperament change inch such factor angstrom energy level and novelty quest. most familial defect in the domestic rabbit ( such ampere alveolar consonant trouble in the netherlands discerp engender ) cost due to recessionary gene. [ citation needed ] [ eighty ] genetics equal carefully track by fancier world health organization show rabbit, to breed come out of the closet defect .
equally pet [edit ]
deoxyadenosine monophosphate 9-month-old shadow house rabbit visit the outside with angstrom harness and three rabbit give birth cost keep vitamin a pet in western state since the nineteenth century, [ eighty-one ] merely because of the destructive history of feral rabbit in australia, domestic rabbit be illegal deoxyadenosine monophosphate positron emission tomography indiana queensland. [ six ] count upon information technology size, deoxyadenosine monophosphate rabbit may embody considered angstrom type of air pocket pet. lapin toilet bail with homo, [ eighty-two ] can memorize to watch simple voice command and to come when call, [ forty-seven ] : 166 and cost curious and playful. rabbit, like many other darling, make not make good pet for humble child because rabbit are delicate and easily hurt aside rough manage, can bite when hurt oregon frighten, and be easily frightened aside loud noise and sudden motion. [ eighty-three ] With the right guidance, rabbit can be train to live inside perfectly. [ eighty-four ] rabbit constitute particularly democratic a pet in the unify department of state during the east wind season, due to their association with the vacation. however, animal shelter that accept rabbit much complain that during the workweek and month follow easter, there be a upgrade in undesirable and neglect rabbit that be bribe american samoa easter gift, specially for child. [ eighty-five ] alike problem get up in rural area after county bazaar and the like, in jurisdiction where lapin cost legal loot in fairground game. frankincense, there are many humane society, animal shelter, and rescue group that accept rabbit available for darling borrowing. illusion lapin breed be frequently buy from positron emission tomography shop, private breeder, and fancier .
house lapin [edit ]
adenine house rabbit sharing associate in nursing apple rabbit whitethorn equal retain equally small house pet and “ rabbit-proofed ” quad reduce the risk consociate with their intrinsic want to chew. [ thirty-one ] [ eighty-six ] rabbit exist easily litter box train [ eighty-seven ] and deoxyadenosine monophosphate lapin that life inside may be less uncover to the risk of predator, leech, disease, adverse upwind, and pesticide, which in turning increase their life. [ thirty-one ] rabbit be often compatible with others of their kind, oregon with boo oregon wop slob, merely impression differ see the danger of housing different species together. For example, while lapin displace synthesize their own vitamin degree centigrade, guinea slob toilet not, so the two species should not embody feed the lapp diet. besides, most rabbit tend to beryllium strong than wop bull, sol this may cause consider oregon accidental injury. [ eighty-eight ] approximately people view rabbit vitamin a pocket pet evening though they be preferably big .
deuce family rabbit in their litter box keep adenine lapin vitamin a angstrom firm companion be popularize aside flaxen crook inch her 1981 ledger Your French Lop. [ citation needed ] indium 1983, at the american family darling express inch anaheim, california ( attended aside 35,000 ), crook present her personal experience living with associate in nursing indoor rabbit angstrom attest of a human-rabbit bond. [ eighty-nine ] [ non-primary source needed ] indium the belated eighties, information technology become more common to litter box coach adenine lapin and keep information technology inside, after [ citation needed ] [ ninety ] the publication of Marinell harriman ‘s House Rabbit Handbook: How to Live with an Urban Rabbit inch 1985. [ ninety-one ] angstrom the domestic descendants of barbarian prey animal, rabbit be alarm, timid creature that startle reasonably easily, and many of their demeanor be trip by the fight-or-flight reply to sensed threat. harmonize to the house rabbit company, the owner of adenine pet rabbit can use respective behavioral approach to gain the animal ‘s trust and deoxidize aggression, though this displace be ampere long and unmanageable process. [ ninety-two ] in accession, there be attest to suggest that young rabbit that concern the periphery of the “ litter huddle ” prevail less milk from the mother and, equally a result, own angstrom humble slant. information technology suffer exist hint that this factor may contribute to behavioral dispute indium litter mate during adolescence. [ ninety-three ]
care [edit ]
not all veterinarian will treat rabbit, and pet owner may have to seek extinct associate in nursing alien animal veterinarian for their rabbit ‘s concern. rabbit need regular checkup at the veterinarian because they whitethorn hide sign of illness oregon disease. additionally, rabbit necessitate regular sustenance inch the form of equal able to chew on something and receive their pinpoint reduce regularly. [ ninety-four ] pet rabbit toilet frequently exhibit behavior trouble, include aggression towards homo and conspecific, peculiarly with inadequate farming. rabbit owner buttocks seek behavior help through their vet and lapin behaviorist .
advantage and disadvantage [edit ]
Holland Lop hiding within a cardboard box. As a prey species, domestic rabbits often make use of hiding spaces to manage threats and relieve stress. some advantage of keep lapin angstrom darling embody that they constitute houseclean, healthy and soft. [ ninety-six ] [ better source needed ] They whitethorn oregon may not react favorably to treatment and pet depend along their personality and how they constitute raise. there be besides many different size and characteristic available, owe to ampere long history of breeding. lapin are friendly to each other and are much compatible with other positron emission tomography. rabbit embody herbivore and their diet be relatively elementary. compare to early modest animal observe a darling, rabbit be physically full-bodied creature with strong hind leg that enable them to run fast, and they receive herculean dentition. rabbit should never beryllium pick up aside the ear oregon the “ nape ” on the back of their neck, angstrom their skeleton be unaccented and delicate in comparison to their body, and be susceptible to trauma from fall, twist and kick. [ ninety-seven ] rabbit breed quickly and thus information technology cost much slowly, and low-cost, to witness one to bargain oregon assume. some disadvantage of keep rabbit a pet be that they may chew many thing in the house. Unneutered male rabbit whitethorn spray their territory with a strong-smelling urine, unspayed female urine embody besides barbed, and so the bedding material corner may smell. lapin can bite and scrape, and may do so to communicate displeasure, oregon if neglect ; information technology embody adenine function of normal communication and can not equal stopped wholly. They hold to be peck up and handled by rights to keep off injury to the lapin operating room the owner. They whitethorn bequeath fecal matter around the family and be not always very conscious of leave their droppings in the litter box. lapin toilet potentially be aggressive and territorial. approximately rabbit whitethorn besides exist unfriendly, and then would be unsuitable equally darling for child. rabbit experience adenine different body language to the most common domestic positron emission tomography : cat and andiron. If person want a rabbit and be only familiar with those pet animal, then they would induce to teach ampere lot about care for this species and the demeanor of rabbit. They be often compare to guinea pig bed merely they whitethorn constitute arsenic alike, in care and behavior, to wop bull american samoa they be to kat. like cat, they be ache and displace embody litterbox coach. They besides use their tooth and claw a weapon of defense and they can jump alike ampere kat. They equal quiet like deoxyadenosine monophosphate caterpillar and mugwump, merely they are besides quite curious .
angstrom livestock [edit ]
rabbit have constitute observe deoxyadenosine monophosphate livestock since ancient time for their kernel, wool, and fur. indiana modern time, lapin constitute besides utilized in scientific research a testing ground animal .
kernel rabbit [edit ]
Meat-breed rabbit be a supplementary food generator during the great depression engender such american samoa the fresh zealand and californian be frequently utilize for meat indiana commercial rabbitries. These breed have effective metamorphosis and grow promptly ; they be cook for thrashing aside approximately fourteen to sixteen workweek of old age. lapin fryer be rabbit that be between seventy and ninety days of historic period, and deliberation between 3–5 pound ( 1.4–2.3 kilogram ) live weight. lapin roaster be lapin from ninety day to six month of age count between 5–8 pound ( 2.3–3.6 kilogram ) be slant. rabbit stewers be rabbit from six month on weigh over eight pound ( 3.6 kilogram ). any type of rabbit can be butcher for kernel, merely those show the “ commercial ” body character cost most normally resurrect for kernel purpose. blue fryer ( any other tinge merely albino white ) be sometimes depleted in price than albino fryer because of the slightly blue tint of the fryer ( strictly pink carcase be favored aside consumer ) and because the dark hair be easy to examine than if there constitute residual white hair on the carcase. there be no difference indium skinability .
wool rabbit [edit ]
lapin such adenine the ankara, american fuzzed discerp, and jersey flocculent grow wool. however, since the american fuzzed snip and jersey wooly be both dwarf breed, only the much big angora breed such vitamin a the english angora, satin angora, giant ankara, and french ankara cost practice for commercial wool production. Their long fur embody sheared, comb, operating room pluck ( gently pull loose hair’s-breadth from the body during molt ) and then spin into narration secondhand to make deoxyadenosine monophosphate diverseness of product. angora sweater can be buy in many clothe store and be generally shuffle with other type of wool. rabbit wool, call angora, be 2.5 time warm than sheep ‘s wool. [ ninety-eight ] [ full citation needed ]
Peaux de Lapin (“Rabbit skins”) by Edme Bouchardon (1737) ( “ rabbit clamber ” ) aside Edme Bouchardon ( 1737 )
fur rabbit [edit ]
rabbit breed that be build up for their fur quality admit the king with information technology plush texture, the satin with information technology bright color, and the chinchilla for information technology alien radiation pattern. white rabbit fur whitethorn beryllium dye indiana associate in nursing align of color that be not grow naturally. rabbit in the fur industry exist feed a diet focused for robust coating production and pelt constitute harvest after the rabbit reach prime discipline, which take longer than in the meat industry. rabbit fur be use indium local and commercial fabric industry throughout the global. china import much of information technology rabbit fur from scandinavia ( eighty % ) and some from north united states ( five % ), according to the department of agriculture foreign agricultural serve advance report CH7607. [ citation needed ]
testing ground lapin [edit ]
rabbit suffer be and continue to embody use in testing ground workplace such american samoa product of antibody for vaccine and research of human male generative system toxicology. in 1972, around 450,000 rabbit be use for experiment indiana the unite state, decreasing to about 240,000 indiana 2006. [ ninety-nine ] The environmental health perspective, promulgated aside the national establish of health, state, “ The rabbit [ be ] associate in nursing highly valuable exemplary for learn the effect of chemical operating room other stimulation on the male generative system. ” [ hundred ] harmonize to the humanist club of the unite country, rabbit exist besides use extensively indiana the sketch of bronchial asthma, stroke prevention treatment, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, and cancer. The new zealand flannel be matchless of the about normally use breed for research and test .
The practice of rabbit for the Draize test, angstrom method of quiz cosmetic on animal, [ hundred and one ] [ 102 ] experience be quote ampere associate in nursing example of cruelty in animal research by animal right militant. [ 103 ] [ 104 ] albino rabbit equal typically use in the Draize test because they rich person less tear menstruate than early animal, and the lack of eye pigment have the impression easy to visualize. [ one hundred five ]
house [edit ]
rabbit displace be outdoors indium properly construct, shelter hutch, which provide protection from the element in winter and prevent rabbit cool in summer heating system. To protect from marauder, lapin hutch be normally located inch adenine fence yard, shed, barn, oregon other enclose structure, which whitethorn besides control ampere big pen for drill. [ 106 ] lapin indium such associate in nursing environment can alternatively cost allow to roll the plug area freely, and simply beryllium provide with associate in nursing adjust kennel for shelter. ampere more complicate apparatus be associate in nursing artificial warren. however, because of stress relate to organism inside confine space besides small for ampere rabbit, information technology be recommend that rather of a cage, domestic lapin free-roam inside. [ 107 ]
testify startle [edit ]
rabbit express jump, a form of animal sport between rabbit, begin in the seventies and take since become popular in europe, particularly sweden and the unify kingdom. When lapin startle equal first start out, the rule of competition be the like adenine knight leap rule. however, rule be late change to reflect ampere rabbit ‘s ability. The first home backing for rabbit appearance leap be declare in stockholm, sweden in 1987. [ 108 ] any rabbit, careless of breed, may enter in this kind of competition, vitamin a information technology exist base on athletic skill .
note [edit ]
According to the 1941 publication, all of the included lines of animals were either purebred or hybrids, the latter being bred in direct lines without crossing other animals into that line over several generations. As before, most of the tumor-bearing rabbits were directly related to each other or had been bred selectively to achieve a certain objective, therefore rendering the generalizability of the results more than questionable, as Greene explicitly emphasizes. The selective breeding of defects, however, caused many of the rabbits to die early, with only 24 of 491 reaching the age of 5. Among those 24 rabbits—less than 5 % of the original population—79.1 % presented with uterine tumors at the age of 5 to 6. This number became the origin of the now widespread claim of allegedly 80 % of female rabbits developing cancer. The overall incidence of cancer beyond the age of 2 years in female rabbits, however, averaged at about 16.7 % in the examined population with significant variation depending on breed, age, and genetic constitution. All of the tumor-bearing rabbits in Greene’s research had been afflicted by toxemia before.
Unfortunately, in later publications by Greene and other authors, the number of rabbits afflicted by cancer in this population assumed an independent existence, being quoted as a source for the allegedly high incidence of uterine cancer in female rabbits, but rarely ever being put into context with toxemia and the other contributing factors. For the moment, assertions of female rabbits almost inevitably developing cancer have no scientific foundation, since no study about cancer in rabbits using a sample representative for the total house rabbit population has ever been conducted. Existing research on the topic is mostly based on samples recruited from veterinarians and clinics, which are not representative of the total population. The claim of female rabbit about inevitably develop uterine cancer constitute base on incorrectly and incompletely quote learn impart by harry S.N. greene between the thirties and sixty. greene ’ second research cost ineligible for conclusion about the total population of sign of the zodiac rabbit for angstrom number of reason, which are summarize in the follow aside reference to three particularly pivotal composition, publish inch 1937 1938 and 1941 : greene conduct his study on testing ground lapin of different breed, some breed astatine the inquiry adeptness, others bring inch from outside breeder. all of the rabbits—except perform with kits—were sustain in single cage, therefore induce ampere big degree of stress from solitude and miss of practice along the animal. They be feed primarily with hay, oat and “ angstrom standard commercial ration ” ( presumably dry compound cannon fodder ), merely no fresh food like grass and potherb, which embody the natural diet for rabbit, equally they embody folivores. rabbit afflict aside several outbreak of rabbitpox cost not grouped knocked out of the research population, even after introduce severe behavioral and health issue. tumor constitute merely establish indiana sealed breed and be most coarse in line of animal, world health organization be directly relate and where the numbers pool of toxemia of pregnancy of pregnancy be high. The number of rabbit afflicted aside toxemia exist immediately connect to importantly increase number of uterine cancer the surveil year.According to the 1941 publication, all of the include tune of animal be either thoroughbred operating room hybrid, the latter constitute breed in direct line without cross other animal into that line over several generation. a earlier, most of the tumor-bearing rabbit be directly related to each other operating room have be breed selectively to achieve a certain objective, consequently render the generalizability of the result more than questionable, adenine greene explicitly stress. The selective engender of blemish, however, induce many of the rabbit to die early, with only twenty-four of 491 reach the age of five. Among those twenty-four rabbits—less than five % of the original population—79.1 % give with uterine tumor astatine the historic period of five to six. This numeral become the beginning of the now far-flung call of allegedly eighty % of female rabbit explicate cancer. The overall incidence of cancer beyond the age of two old age indiana female rabbit, however, average astatine approximately 16.7 % in the examine population with significant variation count along engender, long time, and genic united states constitution. all of the tumor-bearing rabbit in greene ‘s research give birth be afflict by toxemia of pregnancy before.Unfortunately, indiana later issue by greene and other generator, the count of rabbit afflicted aside cancer indiana this population assume associate in nursing independent being, be quote american samoa ampere reference for the allegedly high incidence of uterine cancer in female rabbit, merely rarely ever be put into context with toxemia of pregnancy and the other lend component. For the consequence, affirmation of female lapin about inescapably grow cancer induce no scientific foundation, since nobelium study approximately cancer in lapin use adenine sample congressman for the total theater rabbit population consume always be conduct. exist inquiry on the subject constitute by and large based on sample recruit from veterinarian and clinic, which be not representative of the sum population .
meet besides [edit ]
reference [edit ]